He's due to attend three summits in two days and witness the signing of several deals worth billions of dollars.
"There's an economic depth to his visit," said Ahmed Alibrahim, an expert in Saudi-U.S. relations based in Riyadh. Trump would be looking to sign "major deals" with Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states, he added.
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The deals will cut both ways, providing business for American firms but also investment Saudi Arabia urgently needs as part of its ambitious plan to break its addiction to oil by 2030.
"There will be significant investment from Saudi [Arabia] in the U.S. but also there will be significant benefits to Saudi Arabia," the kingdom's finance minister, Mohammed Al-Jadaan, said in an interview with CNNMoney.
"There will be employment in both, there will be investments on both sides and you will see it when the deals are announced... that there are significant investments on both sides," Al-Jadaan said.
Here are some of the big issues that could dominate Trump's talks.